Publications of Prof. Dr. Benjamin Nagengast


In press

  • Kelava, A., Nagengast, B., & Brandt, H. (in press). A nonlinear structural equation mixture modeling approach for non-normally distributed latent predictor variables. Structural Equation Modeling.
  • Schurtz, I.M., Pfost, M., Nagengast, B., & Artelt, C. (in press). The impact of social and dimensional comparisons on student subject-interest in mathematics and english. Learning and Instruction.
  • Televantou, I., Marsh, H.W., Kyriakides, L., Nagengast, B., Fletcher, J., & Malmberg, L.-E. (in press). Phantom effects in school composition research: Consequences of failure to control biases due to measurement error in traditional multilevel models. School Effectiveness and School Improvement.
  • Marsh, H.W., Abduljabbar, A.S., Parker, P., Morin, A.J.S., Abdelfattah, F., Nagengast, B., Möller,, J., Abu-Hillal, M.M. (in press).  The internal/external frame of reference model: Age-cohort and cross-national differences in paradoxical relations between TIMSS mathematics and science achievement, self-concept and intrinsic motivation. American Educational Research Journal.
  • Schreier, B., Dicke, A.-L., Gaspard, H., Häfner, I., Flunger, B., Lüdtke, O., Nagengast, B., & Trautwein, U. (in press). Was macht die Mathematik wertvoll? Die Bedeutung relevanzbezogener Unterrichtsmerkmale für die Wertüberzeugungen der Schülerinnen und Schüler. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft.
  • Marsh, H.W., Abdeljabbar, A.S., Parker, P., Morin, A.J.S., Abdelfattah, F., Nagengast, B., Abu-Hillal, M.M. (in press). The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability of social comparison processes over two age cohorts from western, asian and middle-eastern islamic countries. Journal of Educational Psychology.



  • Nagengast, B., Marsh, H.W., Chiorri, C., & Hau, K.-T. (2014). Character building or subversive consequences of employment during high school: Causal effects based on propensity score models for categorical treatments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 584-603. doi: 10.1037/a0035615
  • Mayer, A., Nagengast, B., Fletcher, J., & Steyer, R. (2014). Analyzing average and conditional effects with multigroup multilevel structural equation models. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 304. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00304
  • Morin, A.J.S., Marsh, H.W., & Nagengast, B., & Scalas, L.F. (2014). Doubly latent multilevel analyses of classroom climate: An illustration. Journal of Experimental Education, 82, 143-167. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2013.769412
  • Dumont, H., Trautwein, U., Nagy, G., & Nagengast, B. (2014). Quality of parental homework involvement: Predictors and reciprocal relationships with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 144-161. doi: 10.1037/a0034100
  • Scalas, L.F., Marsh, H.W., Morin, A.J.S., & Nagengast, B., & (2014). Why is support for the Jamesian actual-ideal discrepancy model so elusive? A new latent variable approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 62-68. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.05.010
  • Scalas, L.F., Morin, A.J.S., Marsh, H.W., & Nagengast, B. (2014). Importance models of the physical self: Improved methodology fails to support the Jamesian model and provides support for a normative importance model. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 154-174. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2001
  • Thomas, I.T., Marsh, H.W., Gonzalez-Roma, V., Valls, V., & Nagengast, B. (2014). Testing Measurement invariance across Spanish and English versions of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ): an application of Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of Sports and Exercise Psychology, 36, 179-88. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2013-0070
  • Marsh, H. W., Abduljabbar, A. S., Parker, P. D., Morin, A. J. S., Abdelfattah, F., & Nagengast, B. (2014). The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect in Mathematics: A cross-cultural comparison of U.S. and Saudi Arabian TIMSS responses. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 777–804. doi:10.1177/0022022113519858



  • Nagengast, B., Trautwein, U., Kelava, A., & Lüdtke, O. (2013). Synergistic effects of expectancy and value. The case for a within-person perspective. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 48, 428-460. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2013.775060
  • Nagengast, B., Marsh, H.W., & Hau, K.-T. (2013). Effects of single-sex schooling in high school: A comparison of analysis of covariance and propensity score methods. Sex Roles. doi: 10.1007/s11199-013-0261-8
  • Marsh, H.W., Nagengast, B. , & Morin, A.J.S. (2013). Measurement invariance of Big-Five factor structure over the life span: Exploratory structural equation modelling tests of gender, age, plasticity, maturity and La Dolce Vita effects. Developmental Psychology, 49, 1194-1218. doi: 10.1037/a0026913
  • Marsh, H.W., Lüdtke, O., Nagengast, B. , Morin, A.J.S., & von Davier, M. (2013). Why item parcels are (almost) never appropriate: Two wrongs do not make a right—camouflaging misspecification with item parcels in CFA models. Psychological Methods, 18, 257-284. doi: 10.1037/a0032773
  • Friedrich, A., Jonkmann, K., Nagengast, B. , Schmitz, B., & Trautwein, U. (2013). Teacher and student perceptions of self-regulation and math competence: Differentiation and agreement. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 26-34. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2013.06.005
  • Arens, A.K., Yeung, A.S., Nagengast, B., & Hasselhorn, M. (2013). Relations between self-worth and academic self-concept of German elementary and secondary school students. Educational Psychology. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2013.772772
  • Scalas, L.F., Marsh, H.W., Nagengast, B., & Morin, A.J.S. (2013). Latent variable approaches to the Jamesian model of importance weighted-averages. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 100-114. doi: 10.1177/0146167212465321
  • Morin, A.J.S., Maïano, C., Marsh, H.W., Nagengast, B. , & Janosz, M. (2013). School life and adolescents’ self-esteem trajectories. Child Development, 84, 1967-1988. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12089
  • Marsh, H.W., Abduljabbar, A.S., Abu-Hilal, M., Morin, A.J.S., Abdelfattah, F., Leung, K.C., Xu, M.K., Nagengast, B., & Parker, P. (2013). Factor structure, discriminant and convergent validity of TIMSS math and science motivation measures: A comparison of USA and Saudi Arabia. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 108-128. doi: 10.1037/a0029907



  • Nagengast, B., & Marsh, H.W. (2012). Big fish in little ponds aspire more: Mediation and cross-cultural generalizability of school-average ability effects on self-concept and career aspirations in science. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0027697
  • Kelava, A., & Nagengast, B. (2012). A Bayesian model for the estimation of latent interaction and quadratic effects when latent variables are non-normally distributed. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47, 717-742.
  • Marsh, H.W., Lüdtke, O., Nagengast, B., Trautwein, U., Morin, A.J.S., Adbuljabbar, A., & Köller, O. (2012). Classroom climate and contextual effects. Methodological issues in the evaluation of group-level effects. Educational Psychologist, 47, 106-124.
  • Trautwein, U., Marsh, H.W., Nagengast, B., Lüdtke, O., Nagy, G., & Jonkmann, K. (2012). Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy-Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 763-777. doi: 10.1037/a0027470


  • Nagengast, B., Marsh, H.W., Scalas, L.F., Xu, M., Hau, K.-T, & Trautwein, U. (2011). Who took the “x” out of expectancy-value theory? A psychological mystery, a substantive-methodological synergy, and a cross-national generalization. Psychological Science, 22, 1058-1066.
  • Nagengast, B., & Marsh, H.W. (2011). The negative effect of school-average ability on science self-concept in the UK, the UK countries, and the world: The Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effect for PISA 2006. Educational Psychology, 31, 629-656.
  • Marsh, H.W., Nagengast, B., Morin, A.J.S., Parada, R.H., Craven, R.G., & Hamilton, L. (2011). The multidimensional structure of bullying and victimization: An application of exploratory structural equation modelling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 701-732.
  • Marsh, H.W., Nagengast, B., Fletcher, J., & Televantou, I. (2011). Assessing educational effectiveness. Policy implications from diverse areas of reseach. Fiscal Studies, 32, 279-295.
  • Morin, A.J.S., Maïano, C., Nagengast, B., Marsh, H.W., Morizot, J., & Janosz, M. (2011). General growth mixture analysis of adolescents’ developmental trajectories of anxiety: The impact of untested invariance assumptions on substantive interpretations. Structural Equation Modeling, 18, 613-648.
  • Marsh, H.W., Ginns, P., Morin, A.J.S., Nagengast, B., & Martin, A.J. (2011). Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ): Use of student ratings to benchmark Australian universities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 733-748.
  • Marsh, H.W., Liem, G.A.D., Martin, A.J., Morin, A.J.S., & Nagengast, B. (2011). Measurement fruitfulness of exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) in addressing key substantive issues in motivation and engagement research. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment.
  • Morin, A.J.S., Maïano, C., Marsh, H.W., Janosz, M., & Nagengast, B. (2011). The longitudinal interplay of adolescents’ self-esteem and body image: A conditional autoregressive latent trajectory analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46, 157-201.


  • Marsh, H.W., Scalas, L.F., & Nagengast, B. (2010). Longitudinal tests of competing factor structures for the Rosenberg self-esteem scale: Traits, ephemeral artefacts, and stable response styles. Psychological Assessment, 22, 366-381.
  • Marsh, H.W., Lüdtke, O., Muthén, B.O., Asparouhov, T., Morin, A.J.S., Trautwein, U., & Nagengast, B. (2010). A new look at the Big-Five factor structure through exploratory structural equation modelling. Psychological Assessment, 22, 471-491.

2009 und früher

  • Marsh, H.W., Lüdtke, O., Robitzsch, A., Trautwein, U., Asparouhov, T., Muthén, B.O., & Nagengast, B. (2009). Doubly-latent models of school contextual effects: Integrating multilevel and structural equation approaches to control measurement and sampling error. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 44, 764-802.
  • Walther, E., & Nagengast, B. (2006). Evaluative conditioning and the awareness issue: Assessing contingency awareness with the four-picture recognition test. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 32, 454-459.
  • Walther, E., Nagengast, B., & Trasselli, C. (2005). Evaluative conditioning and social psychology: Facts and speculations. Cognition and Emotion, 19, 175-196.



  • Steyer, R., Partchev, I., Kröhne, U., Nagengast, B., & Fiege, C. (forthcoming). Probability and Causality. Buchmanuskript unter Vertrag. Heidelberg: Springer.


Chapters in Monographs

  • Nagengast, B., & Trautwein, U. (under contract). Advances in latent variable modeling in educational psychology. In E. Anderman & L. Corno (Eds.), APA Handbook of Educational Psychology (3. Aufl.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Marsh, H.W., Möller, J., Parker, P., Xu, M.K., Nagengast, B., & Pekrun, R. (under contract). Internal/external frame of reference model. In K. Salmelo-Aro & J.S. Eccles (Hrsg.), International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Nagengast, B., & Marsh, H.W. (2014). Motivation and engagement in science around the globe: Testing measurement invariance with multigroup structural equation models across 57 countries using PISA 2006. In L. Rutkowski, M. von Davier, & D. Rutkowski (Eds.), Analysis of International Large-Scale Assessment Data. New York: Taylor & Francis.
  • Trautwein, U., Nagengast, B. , Marsh, H.W., Gaspard, H., Dicke, A.-L., Lüdtke, O., & Jonkmann, K. (2013). From expectancy-value theory to expectancy-values theory? In D.M. McInerney, R.G. Craven, H.W. Marsh & F. Guay (Eds.), Theory Driving Research: New Wave Perspectives on Self-Processes and Human Development (p. 233-249). New York: Information Age.
  • Marsh, H.W., Hau, K.-T,  Wen, Z., Nagengast, B., & Morin, A.J.S. (2013). Moderation. In T.D. Little (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods - Vol. 2 (p.361-386). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Morin, A.J.S, Marsh, H.W., & Nagengast, B. (2013). Exploratory structural equation modeling. In G.R. Hancock & R.O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural Equation Modeling. A second course (2nd ed.) (p.395-438). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
  • Marsh, H.W., Wen, Z., Hau, K.-T., & Nagengast, B. (2013). Structural equation models of latent interaction and quadratic effects. In G.R. Hancock & R.O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural Equation Modeling. A second course (2nd ed.) (p.267-308). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
  • Marsh, H.W., Wen, Z., Nagengast, B., & Hau, K.-T. (2012). Structural equation models of latent interactions. In R.D. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of Structural Equation Modeling (p. 436-458.). New York: Guilford Press.